I think part of what makes me so fond of this one is the utter absurdity of the colors involved, and yet the forms of the river are all present.
When I worked with satellite images, particularly Landsat imagery, we would composite three bands of an image together using different colors for display. That sounds like murblemurble, I'm sure. False color shows what the terrain would look like, if you used different eyes; ones that could see in infra-red, or ultra-violet, or x-rays.
Earth Observatory has a very nice explanation, with examples.